Embajador Gonzalo Gutiérrez anuncia la publicación en inglés de “Pisco: su nombre, su historia”

La publicación en inglés prueba que la denominación de origen del pisco le pertenece al Perú

pisco name history, gonzalo gutiérrez

El Embajador Gonzalo Gutiérrez anunció la publicación en inglés de su último trabajo: “Pisco: su nombre, su historia”, la culminación de una investigación sobre el verdadero origen del aguardiente de uva. El trabajo analiza la evidencia etimológica, histórica y cultural para confirmar que el pisco es de Perú.

 

Al presentar documentos antiguos, procedimientos legales del siglo XVIII y reflexiones sobre el destilado de uva en las artes y la cultura popular, el trabajo del Sr. Gutiérrez muestra los derechos peruanos sobre la Denominación de Origen de la bebida. El autor expresó que compartir su investigación con una audiencia más amplia de habla inglesa catalizará el avance de la D. de O. peruana.

 

Meg McFarland, traductora del libro, declaró: “El análisis del embajador Gutiérrez es un hito revelador en el ámbito de la industria de las bebidas espirituosas. Mi objetivo como traductora fue ayudar a la comprensión de los lectores de habla inglesa sobre la historia, la cultura y el origen del pisco. Lograr que esta información esté disponible en diferentes idiomas es crucial para el crecimiento del destilado peruano en todo el mundo”.

 

El lanzamiento virtual del libro se llevará a cabo el 23 de junio a la 1:00 pm EST (7:00 pm CSET, 12:00 m. LIMA). El Embajador presentará los principales argumentos para establecer el origen histórico peruano del pisco. El panel también incluirá a Kami Kenna de PiscoLogía pisco y Bourcard Nesin de Rabobank, quienes compartirán sus puntos de vista sobre el papel del pisco en el sector de bebidas espirituosas.

 

Haga clic aquí para unirse a la presentación del libro virtual: https://illinois.zoom.us/j/6437912347?pwd=M2ZpSm82TVIxditNSWROd2NJdU9rUT09

 

Para comprar una copia de “Pisco: su nombre, su historia”, siga el enlace: https://piscocertificate.com/product/pisco-its-name-its-history/.

 

Sobre el Embajador Gutiérrez Reinel

Gonzalo Gutiérrez es el actual embajador de Perú en Bélgica, Luxemburgo y la Unión Europea. También ha sido Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú y Embajador del Perú en China y las Naciones Unidas en Nueva York. Recientemente publicó “Pisco Elqui, El Nombre Engañoso”, un ensayo que revela un esquema comercial engañoso montado en la década de 1930 para eludir las regulaciones sobre el uso de nombres geográficos para designar bebidas espirituosas en los Estados Unidos.

 

Sobre el Pisco

El pisco de Perú es el aguardiente de uva más antiguo de América. Destilado en la tradición del aguardiente ancestral, el pisco es transparente y no se le añeja.  Según la IWSC (Concurso Internacional de Vinos y Licores), el pisco es una de las 5 tendencias de bebidas espirituosas más importantes del mundo, como se ve en su creciente popularidad en la competencia de 2019.

 

Ambassador Gonzalo Gutiérrez Releases Publication of “Pisco: its Name, its History”

The English –Language Publication Proves the Appellation of Origin of Pisco Belongs to Peru

pisco name history, gonzalo gutiérrez

Ambassador Gonzalo Gutiérrez announced the publication of his latest work: “Pisco: its Name, its History”, a culmination of research about the true origin of the grape spirit. The crowning achievement scrutinizes etymological, historical and cultural evidence to confirm pisco is from Peru.

 

By presenting age-old documents, 1700s legal proceedings, and reflections of the grape distillate in the arts, Mr. Gutiérrez’s work shows the historical Peruvian rights to the spirit’s Appellation of Origin. He expressed that sharing his research with a broader English-speaking audience will catalyze the advancement of the Peruvian A.O.

 

Meg McFarland, translator of the book, stated, “Ambassador Gutiérrez’s analysis is an illuminating game-changer in the realm of the spirits industry. My goal as translator was to help shape English-speaking readers’ understanding of the history, culture, and origin of pisco. Making this information available in more languages is crucial to the growth of the Peruvian spirit worldwide”.

 

A virtual book launch will be held on June 23rd at 1:00pm EST (7:00pm CSET). The Ambassador will present the main arguments to establish the historical Peruvian origin of pisco. The panel will also include Kami Kenna of PiscoLogía pisco and Bourcard Nesin of Rabobank, who will share their expertise about pisco in the beverage industry.

 

Click here to join the virtual book presentation: https://illinois.zoom.us/j/6437912347?pwd=M2ZpSm82TVIxditNSWROd2NJdU9rUT09

 

To purchase a copy of “Pisco: its Name, its History”, follow the link: https://piscocertificate.com/product/pisco-its-name-its-history/.

 

About Ambassador Gutiérrez Reinel

Gonzalo Gutierrez is the current ambassador of Peru to Belgium, Luxembourg and the European Union.  He has also been Minister of Foreign Affairs of Peru and Peruvian Ambassador to China and the United Nations in New York. He recently released “Pisco Elqui, The Misleading Name”, an essay revealing a duplicitous trade scheme mounted in the 1930s to circumvent regulations on the use of geographical names to designate spirits in the USA.

 

About Pisco

Pisco from Peru is the oldest grape spirit of the Americas. Distilled in the tradition of ancestral firewater (eau-de-vie, brandy); pisco is clear and unaged. According to the IWSC (International Wine and Spirits Competition), pisco is one of the five biggest spirits trends in the world, as seen in its rising popularity in the 2019 competition.

Gonzalo Gutiérrez: The Denomination of Pisco and Viceregal Trade between Peru and Guatemala 1712-1715-1742

XVIII Century Spanish Frigates

By Gonzalo Gutiérrez

The Captaincy General of Guatemala was created in 1542 and included present-day Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It also extended north to the area of Chiapas in Mexico and to the south to include the provinces of Chiriquí and Bocas del Toro of present-day Panama.

Unlike other Captaincies General in the Spanish dominions in America that depended on viceroyalties such as Peru or New Spain (Mexico), that of Guatemala was directly dependent on the Council of the Indies in Spain.

During the 16th century, trade was relatively free between the Viceroyalty of Peru and the Captaincy General of Guatemala. Peruvian products transported to Guatemala were highly sought-after in the Central American market, and in return, various Guatemalan “articles of the land” were well received in Peru.

However, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Spain restricted trade in order to strengthen its commercial monopoly with each of its American colonies. This limitation was detrimental to both Guatemala and Peru; to the former mainly because it was unable to receive Peruvian wines and spirits, and to the latter because it limited, among other goods, the arrival of Nicaraguan pitch, which was essential for the lining of the clay jars used to export beverages and other Peruvian products. It is highly significant that this Order implemented on May 18, 1615, expressly prohibited the import of Peruvian wine into the Captaincy General of Guatemala.

Consequently, prohibition did nothing but fuel smuggling, especially of products that arrived from Asia to Mexico through the “La Nao de la China”. The merchandise was taken by land to Realejo in the Captaincy General of Guatemala and then clandestinely shipped and smuggled to Peru. Otherwise it was surreptitiously loaded onto small ships that left the Mexican port of Huatulco bound for Callao, the main port in Lima.

Prohibition proved to be detrimental to ports that relied on Peruvian goods, such as La Santísima Trinidad de Sonsonate or Acajutla (in present-day El Salvador) and Realejo (in modern Nicaragua). In 1676, only two ships from Peru were allowed entry in order to purchase indigo, cocoa and pitch.

Due to Spain’s inability to adequately supply the Central American Captaincy General and the constant grievances of the Guatemalan authorities, merchants and citizens, a Royal Decree was issued on May 21, 1685 that allowed for free trade of wines and other products from Peru for three years. The mandate stipulated that the free trade order could be extended once its repercussions had been studied.

However, it imposed many restrictions, such as limiting Peruvian exports to 200,000 ducats, forcing merchants to buy goods in Guatemala and imposing a trade embargo of Chinese textiles and cocoa from Guayaquil. It also introduced compulsory customs duties.

The Decree remained in force and was renewed again in July 1695, keeping the prohibition of cocoa’s trade from Guayaquil, but permitting wines, spirits, oil and almonds to arrive from Peru to the ports of Sonsonate and Realejo.

Manuel Moreyra Paz Soldan reported that between 1701 and 1704, the main products exported from Peru to Sonsonate and Realejo were bundles of Peruvian clothing, spirit, wine and oil clay jars, pouches of raisins, sacks of saltpeter and gunpowder and pounds of refined copper.

At the beginning of the 18th century, a triangular trade system facilitated the movement of Peruvian goods. Products sent from Lima to Acapulco were re-embarked or transferred by the same ship to the ports of Sonsonate and Realejo in the Captaincy General of Guatemala.

That was the case of the frigate called “Our Lady of Solitude” that arrived from Callao to Mexico at the end of 1712. After arriving in Acapulco, the ship and its entire cargo were auctioned off. A gentleman named Juan de Recalde won the bid.

Shortly after, de Recalde appeared before the Acapulco port authorities to obtain authorization to set sail for Guatemala with the cargo. His request was accepted on November 19, 1712. In the “aprezio” or the appraisal of the value of the cargo and the duties on each product, he declared:

“… at forty five reals each case

of snuff that weighs one hundred and

thirty net pounds, that is two and a half pounds (each)

For the consumption of the sacks of snuff,

one hundred pesos per pair,

for each small bale of shirts, eight pesos

the Barros case four pesos

a small case of mills

twenty-four pesos the barrel of oak fillings

at thirty pesos each pack of forty reals

ten pesos for each clay jar of pisco spirit

and at the aforementioned prices there are one

hundred and sixty-five barrels and sack of powders

totaling six thousand

seven hundred pesos and a tomin… “

 

Further down, in the final calculation of the duties that the Master of the ship “Our Lady of Solitude” owed upon departure from Acapulco, it showed:

“…two barrels of oak filling sixty pesos

the small bale of shirts one hundred pesos

the four Barros cases at two pesos, correction:

thirty-two pesos
seventy-two pieces of baize

two thousand one hundred and sixty pesos

the seventy clay jars of pisco spirit seven hundred

pesos

and all its value and import is nine thousand seven

hundred and fifty-five pesos and one real and that

because of having the exit rights charged at this port at

the rate of three and a half percent one hundred and

forty-five pesos and three reales that we paid, which

can be verified by the Master of the Royal cashier … “

 

Subsequently, on December 22, 1712, Juan de Recalde declared in another section of the ship’s register:

“… has on board in the frigate’s hold, narrow and well conditioned for it, seventy clay jars of Pisco spirit with the marks that belong to Mr. Joseph Romero Soriano, for whose fiscal responsibility and risk they were, and I, the Master of the ship, promise to God I will deliver the goods of said frigate to the Ports referred to once their unloading and the registration is deemed to have been fulfilled, will give and deliver said products to said Don Joseph Romero or to whom his power and cause would have to which fulfillment I am bound to comes to be seen. .. “

The information from the registry of “Our Lady of Solitude” was presented to the port authorities in Sonsonate in the Captaincy General of Guatemala upon arrival. The landing permit was finally delivered at the port on March 2, 1713. Later, the Master, Juan de Recalde, obtained a new permit to return the ship to Peru loaded with “goods and fruits of the earth” on March 21, 1713.

The registries of the “Our Lady of Solitude” in Acapulco in 1712 and Sonsonate in 1713 provide incontrovertible proof that the expressions “pisco spirit” and “pisco spirit clay jars” commonly referred to the distilled beverage from Peru exported to the ports of Mexico and Central America in the first decades of the 18th century. They are the first known references to the denomination of the premium Peruvian product outside Peru.

Equally significant, two years later in 1715, the “Sacred Family” ship arrived in Sonsonate from Peru. There were 2,127 jars of wine and 400 jars of spirit in the hold. The duties owed on the jars of alcoholic beverages would be the source of a dispute, since most were property of the Society of Jesus Jesuit Order, and therefore were exempt from payment. A resolution was reached and duties were charged on only 100 jars of wine and 150 jars of spirit, which had arrived without registration, exempting those that were consigned for the religious order.

It is crucial to highlight how the captain, Mr. Luis Carrillo de Córdova, described the origin of the drinks in the Register of the “Sacred Family”:

“… Two hundred and fifty jars of brandy were consigned to me by the Reverend Father Pedro de Castro of the Society of Jesus, Procurator General of the College of San Pablo, founded in the city of Lima. This college owns estates in the Pisco Valley from that Kingdom whose portions of wine and spirit came in Items of the Registry of said Frigate, where there are also certifications of not having paid duties … “

This record from 1715 clearly exemplifies that the origin of the spirit exported by the Society of Jesus was from the Pisco Valley, and the spirit was highly demanded in the Central American market. These jars may been part of the production of the “San Juan Bautista de Cóndor” farm, owned by the Jesuits in the Pisco Valley, which produced the significant sum of 326,415 clay jars of pisco spirit between 1707 and 1767.

Some decades later, in August 1742, the “Our Lady of the Rosary and Blessed Souls” ship arrived at the Central American port of Realejo. The registry stated that the ship’s captain, Bartolomé Hernández Romero, received an order to transport the following goods to Realejo from a resident of Panama, Mr. Jacinto de Pasos Porta, who sent:

Another case of twenty hats from Lima, two bales of snuff from

Havana, each of 30 pounds, 8 dozen knives; 20 pounds of pepper,

and 4 small boxes of white thread, 16 clay jars of pisco, 6 of olives and 10 of wine

Once again, these colonial documents only confirm the Peruvian origin of the distilled spirit known as pisco, which was clearly recognized and demanded in Central America at the beginning of the 18th century. As has been pointed out, they are the first known references to the denomination of the Peruvian beverage known as “pisco spirit” or directly as “pisco” and they precede the writings of the Audiencia of Lima in 1729, when there was a dispute over the price of the “Pisco spirit jars” three years earlier, in 1726.

Brussels, March 2021

Ambassador Gutiérrez Announces Publication of ‘The Denomination of Pisco and Viceregal Trade between Peru and Guatemala, 1712-1715-1742

Gonzalo Gutierrez

Documenting Earlier Evidence of the Use of the Word “Pisco” as the Peruvian Clear Spirit, the Article Further Reinforces that the A.O. of Pisco Belongs to Peru

Ambassador Gonzalo Gutiérrez presents new evidence about the origins of Pisco in “The Denomination of Pisco and Viceregal Trade between Peru and Guatemala, 1712-1715-1742”. In this historically important article, the Ambassador examines trade documents from 1712 that demonstrate the word “Pisco” referred to the clear spirit at least 17 years earlier than originally believed. “Based on my past research, the first reference to pisco as a spirit was presumed to be from 1729. However, this recent discovery proves that the pisco eau-de-vie was a commodity shipped from Peru to Mexico and Central America as early as 1712. This remarkable and exciting breakthrough could be the tip of the iceberg, as there are likely more trade documents preceding 1712”.

 

The registry of the “Our Lady of Solitude” ship in 1712 in Acapulco indisputably proves that the expressions “pisco spirit” and “clay jars of Pisco” were used to describe the beverage from Peru at the beginning of the 18th century. This is the first known use of the appellation in the world. Pepe Moquillaza, a brand ambassador for Marca Pisco in Peru, stated: “The topynomic reference required for an A.O. comes from the Quechua word “pishku”. Then the pisco A.O. solidified through its continued use in commerce, like all the other historical appellations in the world, such as cognac and champagne. That is, demand for a product begins to attribute quality to a product from a place of origin. The fact that the high quality spirit was demanded from the port of Pisco even earlier than believed, unequivocally proves that the D.O. of Pisco belongs to Peru”.

The article can be found at the following link: https://en.calameo.com/read/00648952507bc67e2380e

 

About Ambassador Gutiérrez Reinel

Gonzalo Gutierrez is the current ambassador of Peru in Belgium, Luxembourg and the European Union. He has also been the Minister of Foreign Affairs in Peru and the Peruvian Ambassador in China and for the United Nations. He recently released “The Misleading Name of Pisco Elqui”, an essay revealing a trade scheme mounted to circumvent regulations on the use of geographical names to designate spirits.

About Pisco

Pisco from Peru is the oldest grape spirit of the Americas. Distilled in the tradition of ancestral spirts (eau-de-vie), it is clear and unaged. According to the IWSC (International Wine and Spirits Competition), pisco is one of the 5 biggest spirits trends in the world, as seen in its rising popularity in the 2019 competition.

 

 

 

Embajador Gutiérrez publica “La denominación de pisco y comercio virreinal entre Perú y Guatemala, 1712-1715-1742”

Al documentar nueva evidencia del uso de la palabra “pisco” para describir el aguardiente peruano, el artículo refuerza que la A.O. de Pisco le pertenece al Perú

El Embajador Gonzalo Gutiérrez presentó nueva evidencia sobre los orígenes del pisco en “La denominación de Pisco y el comercio virreinal entre Perú y Guatemala, 1712-1715-1742”. En este artículo históricamente importante, el Embajador examina documentos comerciales de 1712 que demuestran que la palabra “Pisco” se refería a la bebida espirituosa al menos 17 años antes de lo que originalmente se creía. “Se ha documentado que la primera referencia peruana encontrada hasta el momento de la denominación pisco para el aguardiente data de 1729. Sin embargo, este nuevo descubrimiento prueba que el eau-de-vie de Perú era un producto que se enviaba desde el Perú a México y América Central con la denominación pisco desde los primeros años del siglo XVIII. Este avance notable podría ser la punta del iceberg, ya que es probable que haya más documentos comerciales anteriores a 1712 ”.

El registro de la nave “Nuestra Señora de la Soledad” en 1712 en Acapulco prueba indiscutiblemente que las expresiones “aguardiente de pisco” y “botijas de Pisco” fueron utilizadas para describir la bebida del Perú a principios del siglo XVIII. Este es el primer uso ubicado hasta el momento de la denominación pisco para identificar el aguardiente peruano en el mundo. Pepe Moquillaza, embajador de Marca Perú para el pisco, afirmó: “La referencia toponímica requerida para una A.O. proviene de la palabra quechua “pishku”. Luego la A.O. de Pisco se solidificó a través de su uso continuo durante siglos de comercio, como todas las demás denominaciones históricas del mundo, como el cognac y el champagne. Es decir, la demanda de un producto comienza a atribuir calidad a un producto desde un lugar de origen. El hecho de que el aguardiente de alta calidad con el nombre de pisco fuera exportado con esa denominación desde el Perú, incluso antes de lo que se creía, prueba fehacientemente que la apelación del pisco le pertenece al Perú

El artículo se puede encontrar en el siguiente enlace: https://www.calameo.com/read/006489525530f64ea23e4

Sobre el Embajador Gutiérrez Reinel

Gonzalo Gutiérrez es el actual embajador de Perú en Bélgica, Luxemburgo y la Unión Europea. También ha sido Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores en Perú y Embajador del Perú en China y ante las Naciones Unidas. Recientemente publicó “Pisco Elqui, el nombre engañoso”, un ensayo que revela un esquema comercial montado para eludir las regulaciones sobre el uso de nombres geográficos para designar bebidas espirituosas.

 

Sobre el Pisco

El pisco del Perú es el aguardiente de uva más antiguo de las Américas. Destilado en la tradición de la Edad Media, es una bebida transparente porque no se le añeja. Según el IWSC (Concurso Internacional de Vinos y Destilados), el pisco es una de las 5 tendencias de destilados más importantes del mundo, como se ve en su creciente popularidad en la competencia de 2019.

English Translation of Revelatory Research about Pisco by Ambassador Gutiérrez Reinel is released

Press Release

 

“The Misleading Name of Pisco Elqui” Provides Irrefutable Evidence of the Peruvian Origins of Pisco

Meg McFarland announces the release of the English translation of the article “The Misleading Name of Pisco Elqui”. This comprehensive work by Ambassador Gonzalo Gutiérrez Reinel covers the Peruvian origins of pisco and the change of name of a town in Chile in the 1930s. Its aim is to increase awareness of the historical background and cultural diversity of pisco from Peru, “I am delighted to present this work in English about the origins of pisco to the international community, not only to clarify misconceptions, but also to spread the word about the rich history and cultural heritage of Peru’s national beverage”, said Gutiérrez.

By analyzing various geographical, cartographic, legal and historical documents, “The Misleading Name of Pisco Elqui”, refutes controversial claims made about the origins of pisco by Chilean historians. Gutiérrez confirms that the town of “La Unión”, the supposed sociocultural hub of the so-called Chilean pisco culture, was swiftly renamed to “Pisco-Elqui” in 1936 to circumvent regulations on the use of geographical names to designate spirits in the US. “The findings corroborate that the name change of the town “La Unión” was not a response to a sociocultural evolution, as stated by various researchers, but rather to a mala fide trade scheme. On the other hand, the word “pisco” existed in Peru for many years before the arrival of the Europeans to America in the XV century, undergoing an etymological transformation from the word “bird” to eventually refer to the clear spirit”, said the renowned pisco researcher.

The Ambassador has produced many articles on the historical and cultural significance of pisco from Peru, but this announcement marks the first release of a version in English. “It was an honor to work side by side with Ambassador Gutiérrez on this translation project of the most epochal range and quality,” says Meg McFarland, translator of “The Misleading Name of Pisco Elqui”. She continues, “Providing this valuable information in English will help reach a greater pool of readers about the origins and history of pisco”.

The article can be found at the following link:

Pisco Certificate Course-Misleading Name of Pisco Elqui

Misleading Name of Pisco Elqui

 

About Ambassador Gutiérrez Reinel

Gonzalo Gutierrez is the current ambassador of Peru in Belgium, Luxembourg and the European Union. He has also been the Minister of Foreign Affairs in Peru and the Peruvian Ambassador in China and for the United Nations. For a long time he has researched and published about the historical and evidence of the Peruvian origins of pisco. He will soon release a book in English on the subject.

 

About Pisco

Pisco from Peru is the oldest grape brandy of the Americas. Distilled in the tradition of ancestral firewater (eau-de-vie, brandy), pisco is a clear, unaged spirit made from 100% grapes. According to the IWSC (International Wine and Spirits Competition), pisco is one of the 5 biggest spirits trends in the world, as seen in the rising popularity of the spirit in the 2019 competition.

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